By Bob Flexner Pages A while back, my wife and I were visiting friends who wanted to show us their collection of antique furniture. At one point we went into their bedroom and I headed directly for a very old-looking chest-of-drawers. I just wanted to date the piece by how the drawer was made. Construction Drawer construction has changed several times in the last years. Simply pull a drawer out a few inches, glance at the joinery on the side and feel the drawer bottom underneath — essentially a single motion. In addition, the wood used for the drawer sides and bottoms helps determine whether the furniture is American or European. How a drawer is constructed and the woods used is revealing, but there are two important caveats.
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Machine Cut Nails and Wire Nails: Scandinavian Economic History Review 17 1: American Steel and Wire Company n. American Home 37 6:
Getting your nails done every few weeks can be an expensive habit – and it can also wreak havoc on your nails. Turns out, it’s not getting acrylics that’s so bad for your nails. It’s the cheap nail salon you’re going to. I got an insanely good fill-in at Le Luxe Nail Salon in Brooklyn, and.
ROTAS accusative plural of rota wheels The Sator square on a wooden door in Grenoble France One likely translation is “The farmer Arepo has [as] works wheels [a plough]”; that is, the farmer uses his plough as his form of work. Though not a significant sentence, it is grammatical; it can be read up and down, backwards and forwards.
Ceram also reads the square boustrophedon in alternating directions. But since word order is very free in Latin, the translation is the same. Its similarity with arrepo, from ad repo, ‘I creep towards’, may be coincidental. Most of those who have studied the Sator Square agree that it is a proper name, either an adaptation of a non-Latin word or most likely a name invented specifically for this sentence. Jerome Carcopino thought that it came from a Celtic , specifically Gaulish , word for plough.
Read the second part of our guide to what your nails reveal about your inner health. Nail disorders make up about 10 per cent of all skin conditions, and fungal infections account for about half of all nail disorders. Fungal infections which attack the bed and plate of the nails affect around 85pc of adults. Fungal infections are more common in toes because the warm, moist environment inside shoes and socks allows the bacteria to thrive.
A pale pink base and bright white tips have come to characterize the ever-so-popular French manicure, which believe it or not is a common request at nail salons everywhere.
Antique Nails maker for over years. TheAntique Nails Mill The antique nails main mill building was constructed in the early ‘s and was named after the fulling mill Parker Mills whose foundation it now shares. The mill was rebuilt in after a fire destroyed part of the structure. Until the ‘s the main source of power was a centrifugal water wheel which powered the massive overhead shafting. The beams and trusses mostly wooden pegged are a study in strength and rigidity for which the ship-carpenters who designed and built them would have been justly proud today.
The bell in the cupola bears a date of and has called to work and to rest over six generations of loyal workers. Since Tremont Nail Company has survived the tests of time. Loyalty, determination, fortitude and ingenuity have once again succeeded in preserving this early American industry. It is truly a living museum. The Romans hand-forged them and they have been found in excavations and sunken ships from the period A.
When our ancestors first stepped from the Mayflower onto that soil that was to become Plymouth County, they discovered a soil which was essentially sandy and difficult to cultivate. As they plowed for their fist crops, they noticed that the earth yielded small deposits of crude iron ore mixed with the ooze of the swampy regions.
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More Furniture Styles Buying period antique furniture takes detective work The original finish on an antique is part of it’s valued charm When shopping for antique furniture be sure and take the following “tools” with you: To determine if a wood worm hole in antique furniture is genuine, insert a sewing needle into the hole, if it goes in straight it is a “fake hole” made by a drill.
Worms never eat in a straight line! Always be on the look out for repairs well made ones are fine Fakers are clever so be watchful for “new” furniture made from “old” parts i. Also be watchful for the “honest reproduction” Look for the signs of early workmanship in the proportions, finish, materials both wood and hardware and in the design details.
Never rely too heavily on old lables Learn to recognize period detail; read books and visit museums to help train your eye as to what details belong to which periods, this can help you spot a fake easily. Always be careful of style characteristics that should not occur together, such as cabriole legs in oak. If you find old wrought iron nails in a piece of furniture look for a blackened area in the wood around the nail as iron corrodes over time.
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Whether you’re wondering how much that family heirloom is worth or looking to score a valuable flea-market find, understanding how to determine the age of a chair helps you assess its value. To identify when dining chairs were made, look for clues in how the chair was constructed and the style of design that inspired its maker. Fasteners Studying the fasteners used to hold your dining chair together can help you narrow down when the chair was made. Prior to , blacksmiths forged nails by hand, resulting in irregular rose-shaped heads.
Square-headed nails were used from about to , when they were replaced by machine-cut, headless nails. By , today’s round, machine-made nails had replaced the earlier headless varieties.
Dating old square nails. Published: Visser, published by the University Press of New England. Lighter than common cut nails, but used for similar applications, these solid-steel standards were originally designed for building wood boxes and crates.
Instrument of Jesus’ crucifixion The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus describes several tortures and positions of crucifixion during the Siege of Jerusalem as Titus crucified the rebels;  and Seneca the Younger recounts: Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T crux commissa or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism crux immissa.
It is a graffito found in a taberna hostel for wayfarers in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian late 1st century to early 2nd century AD. Lucian speaks of Prometheus as crucified “above the ravine with his hands outstretched” and explains that the letter T the Greek letter tau was looked upon as an unlucky letter or sign similar to the way the number thirteen is looked upon today as an unlucky number , saying that the letter got its “evil significance” because of the “evil instrument” which had that shape, an instrument on which tyrants crucified people.
Jehovah’s Witnesses argue that Jesus was crucified on a crux simplex, and that the crux immissa was first used as a Christian symbol near the time of the supposed conversion of Emperor Constantine. The New Testament writings about the crucifixion of Jesus do not speak specifically about the shape of that cross, but the early writings that do speak of its shape, from about the year AD on, describe it as shaped like the letter T the Greek letter tau  or as composed of an upright and a transverse beam, sometimes with a small projection in the upright.
How should I do my nails?
As I mentioned, there are exceptions — there is a group of guys who prefer older women, and there is a group of women who is uniquely attractive despite being older. But denying that a significant age difference is an issue is like denying that a typical woman wants to be with a guy who is taller. Many younger men appreciate the wisdom, intelligence, reponsibility and maturity an older woman brings to the relationship.
Most younger men in this study, preferred to date years older than their own age.
Most women prefer square shaped nails. But, it is important to shape the nails according to the length of the fingers. Oval shaped nails normally suit longer fingers.
Instrument of Jesus’ crucifixion The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes. Josephus describes multiple tortures and positions of crucifixion during the Siege of Jerusalem as Titus crucified the rebels;  and Seneca the Younger recounts: Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T crux commissa or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism crux immissa.
Lucian speaks of Prometheus as crucified “above the ravine with his hands outstretched” and explains that the letter T the Greek letter tau was looked upon as an unlucky letter or sign similar to the way the number thirteen is looked upon today as an unlucky number , saying that the letter got its “evil significance” because of the “evil instrument” which had that shape, an instrument which tyrants hung men on ibidem. Apparently the most ancient image of a Roman crucifixion is a graffito found in a taberna hostel for wayfarers in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian late 1st century to early 2nd century AD.
The cross is the T shape. An inscription over the individual’s left shoulder identifies her as “Alkimila”. Sharp , , in St. The Crucifixion,  showed that nailed feet provided enough support for the body, and that the hands could have been merely tied. Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body. Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe , is that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel.
A foot-rest suppedaneum attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the person’s weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not discussed in ancient sources. Some scholars interpret the Alexamenos graffito , the earliest surviving depiction of the Crucifixion, as including such a foot-rest.
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Dating Antiques Part III — Hardware Friday, June 8, By Chic Euro When trying to pin down the age of a piece of antique furniture, hardware can provide important clues that place very clear limits on the period from which it originated. While they are trivially common today, nails used to be an item of some value. In the not so distant past, each and every nail had to be individually and laboriously crafted by a blacksmith.
An experienced smith could make a single nail in as little as a minute, which is quite a long time for something that is now churned out by the thousands using modern mass-production techniques.
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Today, the most distinctive symbol of Roman Catholicism is the crucifix an image of Christ crucified on a cross , while Protestant Christians usually prefer to use a cross without the figure the “corpus” – Latin for “body” of Christ. History of crucifixion Pre-Roman States Punishment by crucifixion was widely employed in ancient times. In the sense of impalement, it was used from very early on in Ancient Egypt  and Assyria. Crucifixion, in one form or another, was also used by Achaemenid Persia, the Greeks, Carthaginians, Macedonians and from very early times Rome.
There is evidence that captured pirates were crucified in the port of Athens around the 6th century B. Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander’s adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration. In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on a general for suffering a major defeat.
The birds above and the dogs below would dispose of the remains. According to some, the custom of crucifixion in Ancient Rome may have developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere, hanging on an arbor infelix unfortunate tree dedicated to the gods of the nether world, but Professor William A. Oldfather wrote a detailed study refuting the idea that this punishment involved any form of hanging or was anything other than flogging to death, and the claim that the “arbor infelix” was dedicated to particular gods.
Tertullian mentions a first-century C. Therefore crucifixion was considered a most shameful and disgraceful way to die.
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D65 19th century Pennslyvania hanging Cupboard in original dry red paint, with four window lite door which is fully mmortised and pegged, applied step molding circa D67 19th century Document Box with the original blue paint with the letter WSM on the top. American Trencher in original robin egg blue paint, nice wear, Rare to find an authentic early trencher. Wonderful hand plane marks throughout old age crack and repair D64 Shoe Repair Trade Sign all wood , with original paint, made for a shoe repair shop which can be hung.
D68 Beautiful 19th century dovetailed document trunk featuring the best original dry blue paint.
Antique Nails Established Antique Nails maker for over years. TheAntique Nails Mill. The antique nails main mill building was constructed in the early ‘s and was named after the fulling mill (Parker Mills) whose foundation it now shares.
The bed part of the nail after its removal The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it. The width and thickness of the nail plate is determined by the size, length, and thickness of the matrix, while the shape of the fingertip itself shows if the nail plate is flat, arched, or hooked. This makes the capillaries in the nail bed below visible, resulting in a pink color.
The nail bed is the skin beneath the nail plate. The epidermis is attached to the dermis by tiny longitudinal “grooves”  called matrix crests cristae matricis unguis. It originates from the actively growing tissue below, the matrix. Several layers of dead, compacted cells cause the nail to be strong but flexible. The free margin margo liber or distal edge is the anterior margin of the nail plate corresponding to the abrasive or cutting edge of the nail.
It forms a seal that protects the nail bed. It is just under the free edge, in that portion of the nail where the nail bed ends and can be recognized in fair-skinned people by its glassy, greyish colour. It is not visible in some individuals while it is highly prominent on others. The cuticle is the semi-circular layer of non-living, almost invisible dead skin cells that “ride out on” and cover the back of the visible nail plate while the eponychium is the fold of skin cells that produces the cuticle.
They are continuous, and some references view them as one entity; in this classification, the names eponychium, cuticle, and perionychium are synonymous. The lateral margin margo lateralis lies beneath the nail wall on the sides of the nail, and the nail groove or fold sulcus matricis unguis are the cutaneous slits into which the lateral margins are embedded.
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Women also prefer nail salons to get perfect nails. Do you know how to shape your nails perfectly? If you are in a fix, then we will give you some easy techniques to shape your nails, continue reading.
Jul 06, · Someone told me square nails from the pioneer days are worth a lot of money. He said back in the day nails were expensive to buy/make so when a family decided they wanted to move they burnt their cabin down so they could retrieve all the nails as it was cheaper that way.
April 11, How to Shape your Nails? The best accessory for a girl is to have freshly manicured nails. However sometimes it is not possible for us to schedule a weekly visit to a salon for a manicure. Nonetheless, we can schedule some time from our schedule to shape our nails. How to start shaping your nails The best way to give your nails a shape is by using a nail file.
Some prefer trimming nails with clippers while other favor filing the nails.